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Should you quit your job to be a stay-at-home mom?

Claire Gagne | posted Thursday, Jun 9th, 2016

Nadia Bechai was in her early 30s and working toward making partner at a boutique downtown-Toronto law firm when she got pregnant with her first child—but it didn’t slow her down. She continued to put in long hours, taking on files that would advance her career, and she planned on jumping right back into work after five or six months of maternity leave. “I was very career focused,” she says. “I was not the kind of woman who envisioned myself really enjoying children and children’s activities.” But Bechai’s feelings toward motherhood—and her career—changed after her son, Noah, was born.

Not ready to leave her baby with a nanny as soon as she’d planned, Bechai extended her leave. She went back to workwhen Noah was 11 months old, but longed to be at home with him. When she went on mat leave with her twin girls, born two years after Noah, she was up front with her bosses about not coming back before a year. Eleven months into her leave, she resigned.

Quitting her job wasn’t an easy decision: Bechai was raised to pursue a career, and most of her friends were lawyers or other professionals. She saw throwing in the towel on her job as a sign of weakness. If other women managed to juggle a career and kids, why couldn’t she? After months of trying to quash her true feelings, she admitted how she really felt: “Iwanted to be home. I wanted to be the one to have the challenges of motherhood, and I wanted to be the one to have the joys.”

Julia James, a career and life coach in Victoria, says there’s a lot of pressure on moms today. “There are expectations that women are to be there 100 percent for their kids, and there are expectations that they will push forward with advancing in their careers,” she says. Those conflicting ideals can weigh heavily on a mom who’s torn between her career and her kids. But James says the decision should ultimately come down to what you want to do, assuming your financial and child-care situations allow you some choice. Even when you block out external voices, it’s easy to get bogged down with your own thoughts and feelings. Here’s what you’ll need to think about to make the right decision for you and your family.

You first
Your decision to work or stay home with the kids will affect many people, but think hard about what will make you most happy, not what you think should make you happy. Picture your days in both scenarios: If you’re working, you’ll have the benefit of camaraderie, lunch breaks and drinking coffee while it’s hot. As a stay-at-home mom, you’ll have more freedom on one level, but your days will revolve around nap times, meals and playdates. “That’s not to say you can’t develop a new network with parents in your community, but the get-togethers are different. They’re more sporadic and the conversation may be less stimulating,” says Sara Dimerman, a psychologist who counsels families in the Toronto area. On the fence? Think about how you feel (or felt) being on mat leave. Are you bored, isolated and frustrated, or do you love the freedom from deadlines and a cubicle?

There’s more to think about than how you’ll be spending your time. Being at home with your kids all day is challenging in a way you can only understand after you’ve done it, and for some, it takes a toll on their mental health. A 2012 Gallup poll conducted in the US found stay-at-home moms worried more and experienced more sadness and depression than those who were employed. Linda Duxbury, who researches work-life balance at Carleton University in Ottawa, says women who quit their jobs to focus on their kids suffer from what she calls the “all my eggs in one basket” phenomenon. “The more meaningful roles you have in your life, the more likely it is that if something is going wrong in one role, something else will be going well in another,” she says. If you quit your job because you think it’s going to make others happy, you may find yourself resentful when things get tough (because they will). On the other hand, if you want to stay home with your kids, try to ignore external pressures to do otherwise.

The kids are OK
After a year at home with your baby, it can be hard to imagine balancing all that with a job. But people do it, and talking to other moms who’ve gone back to work can help. Feeling nervous about dropping your kid off at daycare for the first time or guilty that the nanny will be taking him to mom-and-me classes? Research shows kids who are looked after by caregivers thrive just as well as those cared for by their mothers. In fact, a US National Institute of Child Health and Human Development study of more than 1,000 kids found no difference in the development of children cared for by their mothers compared with those cared for by others (including their fathers) during the first four and a half years of life. And consider what you’re modelling: A study out of Harvard Business School, which looked at data from 24 countries, found that women whose moms worked while raising their kids were more likely to have a good job themselves and earn more than those who grew up in homes with a stay-at-home mom. And men who had a working mom were more likely to contribute to household chores and spend time taking care of family members.

Research aside, for some parents, having their kids with a caregiver during the day simply doesn’t sit right. “It just felt natural to be at home while the boys were little, and I’m glad we were able to financially support that,” says Michelle Williams, a mom in St. George, Ont., whose two sons are now in school.

Ultimately, the most important thing is that your kids are in a loving, stimulating and stress-free environment. If you can and want to provide that, great. But a daycare or nanny is just fine, and you can still have a great relationship with your kids—remember that quantity doesn’t equal quality when it comes to time together.


Financial realities
You can’t ignore the money. Depending on your situation, you might take a financial hit if you quit your job, or you might find staying at home makes sense if the cost of daycare is high in comparison to your income. When you’re crunching the numbers, don’t forget to factor in no longer having benefits (unless your partner has a comparable plan), as well as losing out on raises and promotions, which can have a compounding effect on your finances later in life. If your company contributes to a pension or RRSP account on your behalf, think about those retirement savings losses. And don’t discount lifestyle: If you want to travel or have your kids in extracurricular activities, the money to pay for that has to come from somewhere. One of the reasons Angela Lecompte works is to be able to give her three kids, ages seven, four and two, certain experiences. “I like being able to afford to live in Toronto and also that the girls have the opportunity to be in dance and violin and summer camp,” she says. It helps that Lecompte really enjoys her job as a disabilities counsellor at York University—even though it’s hard missing days with her toddler and school drop-offs and pickups.

For Bechai, money was an important factor because, at the time she quit, she was earning more than her husband, who’s a business manager for a mining company. But Bechai’s desire to be at home with the kids outweighed the lifestyle changes they had to make, like eating out less and waiting to buy clothes on sale. Still, Dimerman cautions against downplaying a financial hit, whether it’s a loss of income or high child-care costs. “You have to measure the kind of stress that can result from being in debt,” she says.

Career goals
The hard truth about quitting your job to stay home with your kids when they’re young is that it will affect your career. “We’re pumping out smart university grads, and technology is growing exponentially right now, so your skill set after five years out of the market is going to be hard to sell,” says Duxbury. She suggests women who’ve spent time and money on their education and building a career should strongly consider what they may be giving up if they take time out of the workforce.

Denise Darling, a videographer at an ad agency in Winnipeg, went back to work after a year off with her daughter. “We would probably be OK financially if I didn’t work, but I didn’t want to let go of this side of my life yet,” she says. Bechai, on the other hand, was confident she could go back to practising law later on. “We felt strongly that I wasn’t becoming a person incapable of earning an income by making this decision,” she says. “I wasn’t losing the years of education and work experience I had under my belt, and I was also not losing my drive and determination.”

If you want to focus on your kids now, rather than your career, Duxbury suggests having a plan for keeping your skills sharp and staying on top of changes in your profession, as well as thinking ahead to how you might re-enter the workforce. Bechai, for instance, thinks she’ll start working again at some point, but she doesn’t see herself in the same role. “I envision myself working from home and doing something—like a small law practice or freelance writing—where I could manage the workflow myself.”

Flex arrangements
The silver lining in this debate is that you don’t always need to make an all-or-nothing decision. Part-time work, reduced hours, contract jobs, freelancing or job sharing are great options. Robyn Brown, an early childhood educator in Winnipeg, decided to work part-time so she could be with her son but still maintain a bit of income and keep one foot in her career. “It’s nice to feel like someone other than ‘Oliver’s mom’ two days a week,” she says. Once Oliver is in grade one, she plans on picking up more hours. Duxbury also points out that the question of career versus family doesn’t have to be limited to you. If you do want to focus on your career, now or five years from now, there’s no reason your partner can’t take a step back from his or her career so you can focus on yours.

Whatever you decide, be kind to yourself. The truth is, you can have it all—a happy family life and a fulfilling career—but you can’t do it all. If you’re working, you’ll be pulled in a bunch of directions at once. Look for ways to relieve the burden, like regular babysitting, using pre-made foods or hiring a cleaner. Have a candid discussion with your partner about divvying up household and parenting tasks, and be sure to take some guilt-free time for yourself. And when you’re home with your kids, turn off your phone and enjoy it. On the flip side, being a stay-at-home mom doesn’t mean you have to be a supermom. If you like making themed bento box lunches, great—but it’s not required. And you’ll also need me-time and a few nights out with friends. At the end of the day, your kids will be fine either way. You’re guaranteed to find moms who’ve made different decisions—that’s OK. Own yours.

The most important thing is that your kids are in a loving, stimulating and stress-free environment.

A version of this article appeared in our June 2016 issue with the headline “Quitting time?,” p. 35-37. 

‘Clandestine’ lab found near Dundas and Dovercourt

CityNews | posted Thursday, Jun 9th, 2016

Toronto police are investigating and firefighters are on the scene after a “clandestine” lab was found near Dundas Street and Dovercourt Road on Thursday morning.

Durham police were already at the home on Lisgar Street when firefighters arrived shortly after 6 a.m.

They found a lab with an unidentified substance inside, and it’s not known if anyone was at the home.

Officers were knocking on doors in the neighbourhood, telling residents they were investigating a lab.

Toronto police’s CBRN (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear) team has been called in.

Durham police had been executing search warrants in the area and at Lake Shore Boulevard and Park Lawn Road, and Toronto police were assisting.

The raids were part of Durham police’s ‘Project Neebing,’ a multi-jurisdictional drug investigation targeting street-level drug trafficking, which began in November of 2015.

The search warrants took place at 16 locations across the GTA and east to Belleville. In all, 14 people were arrested.

Along with discovering a clandestine lab, police seized two handguns, four long guns, cocaine, hashish, marijuana, money, and vehicles.

The names of those arrested and the charges they face have not yet been released by police.

Senate deletes near-death requirement from assisted dying bill

BY JOAN BRYDEN , THE CANADIAN PRESS | posted Thursday, Jun 9th, 2016

The Senate voted Wednesday to allow suffering Canadians who are not near death to seek medical help to end their lives, knocking out the central pillar underpinning the federal government’s proposed new law on medically assisted dying.

Senators voted 41-30 to amend Bill C-14, deleting the requirement that a person’s natural death must be “reasonably foreseeable.”

The amendment replaces the eligibility criteria in the bill with the much more permissive criteria set out in last year’s landmark Supreme Court ruling, which struck down the ban on assisted dying.

That sets the Senate on a potential collision course with the government.

Justice Minister Jody Wilson-Raybould signalled earlier Wednesday that the government is unlikely to accept such an amendment.

“We’ve worked incredibly hard on this piece of legislation to ensure that we find the right balance and we’re confident that we’ve found the right balance between recognizing personal autonomy and protecting the vulnerable,” she said outside a Liberal caucus meeting.

“If we were to consider removing reasonable forseeability, that would broaden the regime, the balance that we have struck.”

She added: “There would need to be additional safeguards … This is an incredible and momentous change in our country and we’re confident what we put forward is the right choice for Canada right now. It’s a first step.”

In anticipation of that reaction, the amendment, proposed by Sen. Serge Joyal and passed late Wednesday night, is intended to go hand-in-hand with another amendment, to be proposed by Conservative Senate leader Claude Carignan,

Carignan’s amendment would impose an additional safeguard, requiring a judge to sign off on an application for assisted dying by anyone who is not close to death. It is to be debated and voted upon separately.

Related stories:

Senators will get chance to propose amendments to assisted dying law

Ontario to create referral service, provide drugs at no cost for assisted dying

Leading constitutional expert says assisted dying law unconstitutional

The near-death proviso in the bill has been widely condemned by legal and constitutional experts who maintain it renders the legislation unconstitutional and flies in the face of the Supreme Court ruling.

C-14 would allow assisted dying only for consenting adults “in an advanced stage of irreversible decline” from a serious and “incurable” disease, illness or disability and for whom natural death is “reasonably foreseeable.”

That’s more restrictive than the Supreme Court’s directive that medical assistance in dying should be available to clearly consenting, competent adults with “grievous and irremediable” medical conditions that are causing enduring suffering that they find intolerable.

“We are thrilled that the Senate has listened to reason and has done its duty – to give second thought to flawed bills adopted by the House of Commons and to uphold the rights of Canadians,” said Josh Paterson, executive director of the British Columbia Civil Liberties Association, a plaintiff in the court case that resulted in the assisted dying ban being struck down.

“We commend senators on their serious and thoughtful approach to this issue and for having the fortitude to stand up and fix this bill which would violate the charter rights of suffering Canadians.”

Senators voted for Joyal’s amendment despite a warning from Sen. Peter Harder, the government representative in the upper house, that it “largely guts the bill.”

Joyal and others argued that the amendment was necessary to ensure the bill is constitutional.

“I believe this bill is deeply flawed and I can not support it as it stands because, in my view, it is unconstitutional,” said Sen. James Cowan, leader of independent Liberal senators.

Others cast the amendment in terms of ensuring compassion for those who are suffering intolerably.

Conservative Sen. Linda Frum said she doesn’t believe that Parliament has an obligation to echo the Supreme Court’s ruling word-for-word. But she added: “I do believe that there are fates worse than death, such as unbearable and excruciating pain that promises to last for years on end, grievous physical and mental suffering, the loss of human dignity.”

“It’s possible for all of these conditions to exist separately from a reasonably foreseeable death.”

Feds introduce long-awaited law on doctor-assisted dying. Watch below or click here to view it.

The amendment puts the Senate on the path towards a potential impasse with the House of Commons, which must decide whether to accept or reject any changes proposed by the upper house.

If the Commons rejects the amendment, Carignan has predicted the Senate will “insist” upon it.

There is no mechanism for breaking a deadlock between the two houses of Parliament.

Theoretically, the Senate could repeatedly send the bill back to the Commons with the same amendment, until one chamber or the other gives in.

The two chambers could also agree to hold a “conference” – a procedure to resolve an impasse that has not been used in some 70 years.

Another option would be for the Senate to refuse to pass the bill until the government refers it to the Supreme Court to test its constitutionality, Joyal said.

The Senate did that with the Harper government’s initial attempt to unilaterally reform the Senate. The government eventually did refer the matter to the top court, which advised that the reforms could not be achieved without constitutional amendments supported by at least seven provinces.

An impasse between the chambers would prolong the time in which Canada is without a criminal law governing medical assistance in dying. When the top court struck down the ban on assisted dying, it gave Parliament a year, later extended by four months, to craft a new law. That deadline passed on Monday.

In the absence of a law, the procedure will be governed by the eligibility criteria spelled out by the Supreme Court, guidelines issued by medical regulators in each province and any rules set by provincial governments.

The Senate is expected to continue debating the bill and voting on other amendments into next week. Other amendments are expected to propose allowing advance requests for assisted dying for those diagnosed with competence-eroding conditions like dementia and explicit protection for the conscience rights of health care providers who refuse to provide assistance in dying.

Toronto sets out traps for elusive capybaras

CityNews | posted Thursday, Jun 9th, 2016

The City of Toronto has set out traps for two elusive capybaras that have been missing for more than two weeks.

The two female capybaras escaped from their pen at the High Park Zoo on May 24, as zoo workers were moving a third capybara into the enclosure.

One of them was spotted on June 5, but was not captured. City staff said traps were set the next morning.

The traps could be seen at High Park on Thursday.

Related stories:

One of two missing capybaras spotted in High Park

Two capybaras still on the loose after escaping High Park Zoo

Capybaras are so yesterday: Search on for Brampton alligator

Capybaras are the world’s largest rodents. Fully grown, they can reach over four feet in height and can weigh as much as 140 pounds – they also look like large guinea pigs. They enjoy swimming and don’t like children.

The escape led to the nicknames Bonnie and Clyde (perhaps Thelma and Louise would have been better) for the pair, a parody Twitter account, an online video game, and joking comments from Mayor John Tory about forming a search party.


However, the zoo could be in real trouble, an animal welfare group told the CBC. A representative for ZooCheck said that the zoo could face charges under the Ontario Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, especially given the zoo’s history.

This isn’t the first time an animal has run free from the High Park Zoo.

Almost exactly a year ago, the High Park Peacock escaped from the zoo and was on the loose in Toronto for days before returning home on its own.

In 2009, six animals – four llamas, one yak and one wallaby – escaped from the zoo after someone opened their enclosures.

6 back pain myths, debunked

BT Toronto | posted Wednesday, Jun 8th, 2016

Back pain is a common condition that affects 85 per cent of people at some point in their lives. Back pain can be overwhelming and the symptoms are easily misunderstood. With this in mind, chiropractor Dr. Stacy Irvine debunks common myths about back pain and shares tips on how to get the proper help that you need.

Myth #1: This pain is so bad and so intense, I should probably head straight to the emergency room

This is where many people with sudden onset low back pain end up. The emergency room should not be a first stop unless you are experiencing a loss of sensation in the saddle area or loss of bowel or bladder control. The best first step is to find a good musculoskeletal expert to help you diagnose the cause of lower back pain.

Myth #2: I should go right back to bed and stay there until my pain goes away

Bed rest will not help alleviate your lower back pain, and in many cases will actually make it worse. Dr. Stacy Irvine says you should keep moving as long as you can tolerate it. A chiropractor can help you identify positions of relief to keep you moving.

Myth #3: I think I can “stretch” this pain away

Dr. Irvine warns against stretching until a thorough assessment has been performed. In some instances, certain stretches and positions can make things worse. A chiropractor can suggest the exercises that will be the most helpful and when to begin doing them to decrease the risk of aggravating the symptoms.

Myth #4: I definitely need a massage

Once again, it’s important to have a thorough assessment and get educated about the true cause of back pain before treating the symptoms. Massages can be helpful in some cases, but aggravating in others. Unfortunately, there is no magic pill that can work for every single case of back pain.

Myth #5: I need an X-ray, CT, MRI to figure out why I have back pain

Most of the causes of acute lower back pain will not show up on any of these images. It will be a waste of time and a waste of health care dollars to have these images done. A qualified health care provider is trained to know when extra imaging needs to be performed.

Myth #6: Once my back pain is gone, I no longer need to do my exercises

Once patients are no longer in pain, many stop performing helpful exercises that helped them recover. For the majority of cases, back pain can return as the body’s muscles go back to their de-conditioned state. It is extremely important to make healthy back care and strengthening a priority.


5 tips for landing the perfect summer job

BT Toronto | posted Wednesday, Jun 8th, 2016

With summer approaching, many students are searching for summer jobs, but landing that perfect opportunity can be tough. To help the job search, Dr. Karyn Gordon shares five tips that will ‘wow’ potential employers, and help students land a fantastic summer job.

1. Be punctual

Dr. Karyn Gordon says younger generations often show up just on time or even late for interviews, which is one of the greatest irritants for HR managers. This may be due to a generational difference, as the older generation will interpret being late as “a sign of disrespect”. For a better chance of getting hired, show up reasonably early for the interview.

2. Do your research

Whatever the job is, research the company before the interview. Dr. Karyn says many HR managers are shocked that many applicants do not properly research their company, haven’t visited their website, and don’t really understand their business before the interview. Spend some time researching the company, its history, and its values.

Ask questions like, who are they? What do they do? Who is their audience? What are the different areas within their business? How do you think you can add some value?

3. Wow them with your resume

Gone are the days of dull single page resumes on white paper. Applicants need to stand out among the large stack of other resumes – try adding some colour, a picture, and even graphs and charts to make a resume ‘pop’. Dr. Karyn recommends even performing a quick Google search for ‘creative resumes’ to gather ideas.

4. Be prepared

Learning to rehearse is a great habit. Be sure to practice out-loud what to say and how to say it, while also paying attention to body language, tone of voice and facial expressions. According to Dr. Karyn, the entire body needs to fully rehearse out-loud so that when its “show-time” muscle memory takes over in a stressful “no-time-to-think” situation.

5. Leave your parents in the car

Dr. Karyn says many HR managers experience parents getting involved in the hiring process either by calling or handing in resumes for a job on behalf of their children. HR managers want to see independence and confidence and to know the applicant is ready for the job and can handle the full responsibility. Parents should stay in the car and provide support only before and after the interview.

General Motors to announce 1,000 new jobs in Oshawa: reports

THE CANADIAN PRESS | posted Wednesday, Jun 8th, 2016

General Motors Canada is expected to announce up to 1,000 new jobs this week, published reports say.

The Globe and Mail and the Toronto Star, citing unidentified sources, say the jobs are expected to be announced Friday at General Motors’ engineering centre in Oshawa.

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Ontario Premier Kathleen Wynne are expected to be on hand when the announcement is made at GM’s Canadian headquarters.

The reports say the new positions will eventually be spread out at a number of General Motors research and development facilities.

General Motors said in 2012 that it would spend $750 million on research and development by 2017 under a commitment to the federal and Ontario governments, which provided some of the money for a 2009 bailout of its U.S-based parent.

Future of Oshawa GM plant in limbo Watch the video below or click here to view it.

Hillary Clinton seizes historic primary win


Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton gestures as she greets supporters at a presidential primary election night rally in New York on June 7, 2016. THE ASSOCIATED PRESS/Julio Cortez.

Powered by a strong showing in California, Hillary Clinton declared victory in her yearlong battle for the heart of the Democratic party, seizing her place in history and setting out on the difficult task of fusing a fractured party to confront Donald Trump.

Clinton cruised to easy victories in three of the six state contests on Tuesday – including delegate-rich New Jersey. With each win she further solidified Sen. Bernie Sanders’ defeat and dashed his already slim chances of using the last night of state contests to refuel his flagging bid.

The much-needed winning streak allowed Clinton to celebrate her long-sought “milestone” – the first woman poised to lead a major political party’s presidential ticket. Standing before a flag-waving crowd in Brooklyn, the former secretary of state soaked up the cheers and beamed.

“Barriers can come down. Justice and equality can win,” she said. “This campaign is about making sure there are no ceilings, no limits on any of us. This is our moment to come together.”

Clinton had already secured the delegates needed for the nomination before Tuesday’s contests, according to an Associated Press tally. Still, Sanders had hoped to use a victory in California to persuade party insiders to switch their allegiances. Sanders picked up wins in Montana and North Dakota. But Clinton’s substantial lead in California made it clear his effort was faltering.

Sanders vowed to continue to his campaign to the very last contest in the District of Columbia on next Tuesday.

“The struggle continues,” he said.

Sanders is under intense pressure from top Democrats hoping to coax him gently out of the race, win over his voters and turn to the task of challenging Trump.

Despite the pledge to solider on, there were signs Sanders was listening. In his typically passionate remarks, the socialist firebrand repeatedly noted “we are in this together” and argued that a base tenet of his campaign was that “we will not allow right-wing Republicans to control our government.”

Sanders said he called Clinton to congratulate her on the victories.

The senator is scheduled to return home to Burlington on Wednesday, before coming to Washington Thursday for meetings and a campaign rally.

President Barack Obama called both Sanders and Clinton late Tuesday, congratulating both on their campaigns. The White House said Sanders and Obama would meet Thursday, at Sanders’ request, to discuss “how to build on the extraordinary work he has done to engage millions of Democratic voters, and to build on that enthusiasm.”

Clinton and Sanders are also expected to connect in the coming days, Clinton’s spokesman said late Tuesday. The candidates’ campaign managers spoke earlier in the day, signalling that conversations were underway about the road ahead.

Related stories:

Hillary Clinton suggests she’d replicate Canada’s gender-balanced cabinet

Is the rest of the world ‘rattled’ by me? Good, says Donald Trump

Trump has enough delegates to clinch Republican nomination

As the Democratic race was wrapping up, Republicans were unraveling anew. Despite handily winning GOP contests in California, New Jersey, New Mexico, South Dakota and Montana, presumptive nominee Trump was in damage control mode over his race-based attacks on a Hispanic judge that had party leaders in fits. After one senator rescinded his endorsement and House Speaker Paul Ryan called the comments “racist,” Trump sought to calm worries with a rare, scripted victory speech.

“I understand the responsibility of carrying the mantle and I will never, ever let you down – too much work, too many people, blood, sweat and tears,” Trump said, reading from a teleprompter at a rally at one of his golf courses in suburban New York City. “I will make you proud of your party and our movement, and that’s what it is, is a movement.”

Trump went on to preview what Clinton has ahead of her: He blasted the former secretary of state and first lady as the defender of a “rigged” political system. He promised to deliver a longer speech on the Clintons “probably Monday.”

“The Clintons have turned the politics of personal enrichment into an art form for themselves. They’ve made hundreds of millions of dollars selling access, selling favours, selling government contracts, and I mean hundreds of millions of dollars,” he said.

In her remarks, Clinton was similarly hard-edged, saying Trump was “temperamentally unfit to be commander in chief.”

“When he says let’s make America great again, that’s code for let’s take America backward,” she said.

Clinton’s moment came a day after she secured the necessary 2,383 delegates, according to the AP tally. Her victories on Tuesday added to the count, which includes pledged delegates won in primaries and caucuses, as well as superdelegates – the party officials and officeholders who can back a candidate of their choosing.

Sanders and some in his army of die-hard supporters expressed frustration about the survey. As he addressed supporters in Los Angeles, the crowd chanted “Media is corrupt.”

Both Clinton and Trump made overtures toward an energized and passionate pool of voters. Trump noted he and Sanders both oppose the president’s Pacific Rim trade deal, and he sympathized with frustration for having “been left out in the cold by a rigged system of super delegates.”

Clinton thanked the senator for driving the debate over economic mobility and income inequality and tried to show she absorbed some of his message. Mostly, she expressed empathy of a candidate who knows the bitter taste of defeat.

“It never feels good to put our heart into a cause or a candidate you believe in and come up short,” she said. “I know that feeling well. But as we look ahead to the battle that awaits, let’s remember all that unites us.”

But for Clinton, the night was largely about marking the moment.

Her campaign produced a video to introduce her speech, chronicling women’s rise in politics from the suffragettes through Clinton’s concession to speech to then-Sen. Barack Obama, eight years ago Tuesday when she thanked supporters for helping her put “18 million cracks” in the “highest, hardest glass ceiling.”

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